Makino has another and just as important argument for recycling EV batteries: Most electric cars are still more expensive to produce and buy than traditional cars with internal combustion engines. That is more than outweighed by the lifetime benefit of EVs, of course, because owners can typically expect lower maintenance costs and far lower "fueling" costs. With Nissan and 4R technology, however, the owners of electric cars may find that the battery in their old car could be a significant asset. By creating demand for batteries that are past their useful life, 4R helps bring down the total cost of ownership for electric vehicles even more. Owners don't have to sell their old car just for scrap but can get much higher value for its battery, which results in a nice end-of-life return on their investment.